Essays on Betrayal in the City – Francis Imbuga for candidates 2017-2018
Students name………………………………………….. adm. No…………class……….
- The Elites play a major role in salvaging countries marred by poor governance. Explain The truth of the above assertion with reference to Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City.
The government of Kafira is a dictatorial regime that doesn’t mind the suffering of the
Masses. Explain the truth of the above assertion with reference to Francis Imbuga’s
Betrayal in the City
Revenge is a vicious cycle that needs to be stopped since it hinders development.
Explain the veracity of the above assertion with reference to Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal
In the City
Kafira is an epitome of corruption in the developing countries. Explain the truth of the
Above assertion with reference to Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City
Deceit reigns in situations of poor governance and with them comes conflict. Explain
The truth of the above assertion with reference to francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City
A state can be brought down if its leadership thrives on cronism and poor advisors.
Explain the truth of the above assertion with reference to Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in
Kafira’s woes can be attributed to the inefficiency of its leadership. Explain the truth of
The above assertion with reference to Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City
Betrayal in the city is a perfect satire of the ills in third world countries. Explain the
Truth of the above assertion with reference to Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City
Bad governance creates room for economic opportunism. Write an essay in support of
This statement drawing illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
Mulili is an embodiment of evil attributes. Write an essay in support of this statement
Drawing illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
Many people in Kafira are traitorous. Write an essay in support of this statement
Drawing illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
Strikes come with many adverse effects. Write an essay in support of this statement
Drawing illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
Write an essay explaining the relevance of the title Betrayal in the City from the
Play Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
“the outside of this cell might as well be the inside of another” from
Instances in the play write an essay justifying Jere’s assertion drawing illustrations from
The play Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
Oppression breeds misery and conflict. Write an essay in support of this statement
Drawing illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga
The situation in Kafira has bred despondency amongst its citizens. Write an essay in
Support of this statement drawing illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City by
Many events and actions in Betrayal in the City are triggered by the need for revenge.
Write an essay in support of this statement drawing illustrations from the play Betrayal
In the City by Francis Imbuga
- Doga and Nina’s superstitious believe are their undoing. Basing your answer on Francis Imbuga’s betrayal in the city
- Doga says that using money is a strange way to appease the dead. Illustrating your answer with what Happens to Adika, write an essay.
- Askari portrays an air of superiority in his treatment of Jere and Mosese. Basing your illustrations on betrayal in the city by Francis Imbuga, explain the above statement
- Hypocritical leadership in kafira denies the citizens their rights. Write an essay in support of this statement basing your answer on Francis Imbuga’s betrayal in the city.
- When the madness of an entire nation disturbs a solitary mind, it is not enough to say the man is mad. What does this statement imply. Base your answer on Francis Imbuga’s betrayal in the city
- 23. a society full of cowards is a doomed society. Write an essay illustrating this statement basing your answer on Francis Imbuga’s betrayal in the city
- Write an essay to show how Francis Imbuga has used irony in his book betrayal in the city
- The government of kafira is founded on corruption. Using illustrations from betrayal in the city, Write an essay to support this statement
- Dictatorship pushes citizens to the war and are bound to react in an extreme manner. Write an essay to illustrate this statement basing your answer on Francis Imbuga’s betrayal in the city.
- Using Francis Imbuga’s betrayal in the city, write an essay on the effects of strikes.
- Drawing examples from Francis Imbuga’s betrayal in the city, write a composition on the role played by relatives in one’s life.
- “The outside of this cell may well be inside of another.” With illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City, Write an essay to discuss what Jere means by this statement.
- Sometimes people who betray others are friends or people who are close to them. Discuss this statement in the light of Francis Imbuga’s, “Betrayal in the city”.
“The guilty will never escape punishment.”Basing your answer on Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the city, Write an essay to show the veracity of this statement.
“Close relationship with leaders may make an individual commit evil with impunity.”
With reference to Francis Imbuga’s, Betrayal in the City, show how Mulili’s character illustrates this.
Francis Imbuga, Betrayal in the City.‘In a dictatorial regime the prisoners are not only the incarcerated.’ Drawing your illustrations from Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City, write an essay to justify this statement.
- “We keep our friends close but our enemies even closer”. Support this statement using “Betrayal in the City” as reference.
We have those that we think are our friends and we keep them informed and as part of our lives, yet they are our enemies and don’t have much interest in us.
1.Mulili and Jere
They are both government officials. When they are sent to stop Doga and Nina from the shaving ceremony, they disagree as Jere wants it performed.
Jere feels that it should be kept a secret by both of them as Mulili had earlier helped Mustafa to escape and Jere had kept silent. But Mulili tells the boss of this little secret and Jere ends up in jail. Jere had also earlier threatened to shoot Mulili.
2.Mulili and Kabito
They are in the same visitors entertainment committee as the boss view them as his supporters.
Kabito refers to Mulili as a thief and later on Mulili misreports him to the boss. Mulili reports to the Boss that he has robbed him of the milk tender, he says Boss had ruined the economy among other accusations leading to the Boss eliminating a loyal and hardworking officer. Mulili also gets the milk tender at the expense of Kabito.
3.Mulili and Boss
Mulili is said to be a close cousin to the Boss and his eye and ear on the ground, he even puts him on various committees as his spy and close loyal friend and cousin. But during the play within a play when the Boss is outwitted and fixed, Mulili says he is a distant cousin and asserts that he should be shot for engaging in so many ills among them ruining the economy and death of Kabito.
4.Jusper, Jere, Mosese versus the Boss. The three actors would want the Boss to take role and give them actual guns instead of gun props only to turn against him. They get excited for the achievement of holding Boss at ransom and want to shoot him but instead shoot Mulili who has attended the dress rehearsal.
5.Kabito and Nicodemo
They seem close friends even discussing the loss of the milk tender but the death of Kabito, Nicodemo does not want to lose allowance for the day. He asks if the day would be counted.
Any 4 well illustrated points
Grammar and presentation 4 Total 20 marks
- Betrayal in the city – Francis Imbuga – A nation led by a bad leader is destined to fall.
Drawing illustrations from Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City’, justify this statement.
Bad leaders are most of the time egocentric, corrupt and greedy. These leaders always lead to the downfall of their countries. It is not different in Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City where the leaders have greatly contributed to Kafira’s downfall.
Accept any relevant introduction, general, specific or general –specific (2 marks)
L(i). Mulili is one such leader. His corrupt trait makes him have the milk tender which was initially Kabito’s. He manipulates Boss into giving him the tender by lying to Boss about Kabito and later, he has him killed. He is also greedy for wealth to an extent that he is ready to do anything to get the vast land (4000 acres) promised to him by Boss. This indeed is a quick way to a nation’s downfall.
L II. Boss who is Kafira’s top most leaders hires expatriates to take up lecturing jobs which causes university students to go on strike since there are qualified citizens who are jobless in Kafira. To hit back, he gets more expatriates. His greed is portrayed by the fact that he has stashed money in foreign accounts. These traits contribute to a fall of Kafira.
LIII. Tumbo, a top government official is also corrupt, which leads him to let Jusper write the play without having a competition to get a winner as was required to. He later says that the rest
of the money would be used to ‘set the records’ straight. This is greed at its best besides
orruption which a recipe for country’s fall.
LIV) Nicodemo’s act of planting drugs in Mosese’s car is corrupt indeed, especially when it is meant to implicate an innocent person leading into being jailed just to silence and punish him for no good reason. After the announcement of Kabito’s death, he asks if that day sitting allowances could be paidif they called off the meeting
LV). Askari portrays corrupt traits when he says that he gave tea to the prisoner Jere who did
not belong to his tribe. He goes further to say that one needs a ‘tall relative’ to getanything, an indication of high level of corruption which has brought this country to its knees.
Award 3:3:3:3 to any four well illustrated points.
Indeed leaders who are egocentric, corrupt and greedy lead to the downfall of a nation as has been seen in Kafira.Boss and his government officials have contributed a great deal to the state of Kafira.
3. Drama: Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in The City. Fighting for justice comes with a price. Discuss the validity of this statement in relation to the play – Betrayal in the City
Fight for justice is ideal in a open society where injustices abound. But this is not always cherished by all making the fighters for justice suffer.
1. Adika a university student and a student leader. They organize demonstrations protesting the state of affairs in Kafira. During one such demonstration, Adika is killed.
2. Mosese is a university lecturer. During Adika’s burial the political class oppresses Adika’s family. They want to control the length of the service and forbid the family from weeping. Mosese complains about this and he is imprisoned, after drugs are planted in his car.
3. Jere is sent to the village to prevent Adika’s parents from conducting the saving ceremony in his honour. The government refer to it as “restoring peace”. Jere feels this is wrong and refuses to comply. He is arrested.
4. Kabito openly complains about nepotism and when Boss hears of it, he orders his killing.
5. Doga and Nina are jailed for insisting that they want to perform a ceremony for their late son. This is against the government orders.
Fighting for justice is healthy in any society however this courage enough to do that might end up suffering as shown above.
- Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga.
4.When a nation is led by corrupt and greedy leaders, a nation is bound to have a great downfall. With reference to Francis Imbuga’s play ‘Betrayal in the City’, justify this statement.(20mks.
Corruption and greed in leaders always leads to a downfall of a nation. It is not different in Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City where the leaders have greatly contributed to Kafira’s downfall.
Accept any relevant introduction, general or specific.
- Mulili’s corrupt trait makes him have the milk tender which was initially Kabito’s. He manipulates Boss into giving him the tender by lying to Boss about Kabito and later, he has him killed. He is also greedy for wealth that he is ready to do anything to get the vast land (4000acres) promised to him by Boss. This indeed is a quick way to a nation’s downfall.
- Boss who is Kafira’s top most leader hires expatriates to take up lecturing jobs which causes university students to go on strike since there are qualified citizens who are jobless in Kafira. To hit back, he gets more expatriates. His greed is portrayed by the fact that he has stashed money in foreign accounts. These traits contribute to a fall in a nation.
- Tumbo, a top government official is corrupt, which leads him to let Jusper write the play without having a competition to get a winner as was required to. He later says that the rest of the money would be used to ‘set the records’ straight. This is greed at its best besides corruption.
- Nicodemus’ act of planting drugs in Mosese’s car is corrupt indeed, especially when it is meant to implicate an innocent person leading into being jailed just to silence and punish him for no good reason. After the announcement of Kabito’s death, he asks if that day would be counted since the meeting was being called off
Askari portrays a corrupt trait when he says that he gave tea to the prisoner Jere who does not belong to his tribe. He goes further to say that one needs a ‘tall relative’ to get anything, an indication of high level of corruption.
Award 3:3:3:3 to any four well illustrated points.
Indeed corruption and greed leads to the downfall of a nation as has been seen in Kafira. Boss and his government officials have contributed a great deal to the state of Kafira.
5. “In a dictatorial regime; the prisoners are not only the incarcerated.” Drawing illustrations from Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City, write an essay to justify this statement.
It is not only those locked up that are denied freedom to dictatorship states those outside have no
freedom either as indicated in Betrayal in the City.
Doga and Wira.
Adika and University students.
Mosese (as a lecturer)
Jere (as a soldier)
Writers / publishers.
Boss’s wife – Mercedes (mark 3:3:3:3 = 12 marks)
Lack of freedom is widespread in Kafira as shown above, (2mks)
6. “Kafira is a reflection of African states ruled with an iron fist.” Validate the truthfulness of this statement drawing your illustrations from the text ‘Betrayal in the City’ by Francis Imbuga. (20 mks)
Betrayal in the city by Francis Imbuga
Introduction – (2 mks)
It can be:
- General to specific
Specific / contextualized
In the text, ‘Betrayal in the city’, by Francis Imbuga, oppression is perpetrated by the government and individuals to innocent citizens. This brings about suffering to the victims of the vice.
- The government of Kafira oppresses university students.
- Adika is shot dead in a riot / demonstration against the employment of foreign expatriates.
- Students are not allowed to carry his coffin
- The ceremony should not take more than 10 min.
- The government instills fear among citizens.
- Beggars do not see the need to protest.
- Regina has given up the fight for freedom.
- The government threatens its citizens with suspicion.
- Mosese is falsely accused of dealing in drugs; I kg of opium is planted into his car to trap him.
- The government denies innocent citizens their rights.
- Doga and Nina are disallowed to carryout the shaving ceremony at the grave side of Adika.
- Mulili does not want to lose the piece of land promised by Boss and; therefore, denies them from performing the right.
- Kabito is denied that milk tender in favour of Mulili.
- Boss’ affiliates dictate to others.
- Mulili dictates the Drama Department of the National University to act a play.
- He dictates primary school pupils to line-up on airport road to welcome the visiting head of state.
- Prison warders are harsh on prisoners
- Askari beats Mosese for asking too many questions.
- He is suspicious when Mosese remains silent.
- The government eliminates rebel citizens.
- Kabito is killed in an ‘accident’ owing to an earlier disagreement with Mulili.
Doga and Nina are killed for opposing the government of the day.
Any 4 points x 3 = 13 mks
- Summary of the points in the body.
- An opinion / proverb
In conclusion, the government of Kafira oppresses and makes them to live in a state of fear.
Accept any other relevant conclusion.
7. “Corruption is a vice that should be fought by all and sundry”. Using illustrations from Imbuga’s “Betrayal in the City”, Write an essay to justify this statement.
Introduction (2 marks)
Corruption has been blamed for a myriad of problems affecting the country. Indeed none other than the president has asked some state officers to step aside to facilitate investigations on corrupt related cases. This is because corruption hinders development and hence should be fought.
Content 12 Marks
c. (i) Tumbo confesses he never went to university. He sold his scholarship hence somebody got to university through corrupt means. He later says university education is not necessary nowadays. There opportunities but they do not come on a silver plate. Indeed, he owns two blocks.
(ii) Tumbo announces Jusper the winner of a one act he has not written in non existent competion. Jusper is paid 1/3 of the 600 pound allocated for the competition. The rest will be used to make the records straight.
(iii) Kabito’s tender issue. He had got it by being nice to people. It is then given to Mulili – a 2nd rate farmer. It is only a telephone call from the boss to be given to Mulili No competitive bidding.
(iv) 1st item on the agenda – size of the potato. How many days they are to meet/suggest everyday and even after departure of visitor why? To increase size of the potato.
(v) Boss hides millions of shillings in foreign countries/ he takes everything to his hand/Has ruined the economy of Kabira.
Expect any four well illustrated points
Mark 3 : 3 : 3 : 3
Conclusion 2 marks
Expect a valid conclusion.
Language 4 marks
8. “Absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Basing your answer from the play, Betrayal in The City, show the validity of this statement. (20 marks)
The statement absolute power corrupts absolutely is true since some of the characters in Betrayal in the City use power corruptly. The following illustrations show this.
(Accept any other plausible introduction)
(Award two marks)
- Boss uses his power to award cronies like his cousin Mulili. Mulili is his ear and eye. When Adika dies during the University students demonstration and Jusper is asked to guard his grave, Doga and Nina wish to carry out the shaving ceremony. Jere and Mulili are sent to stop this ceremony from taking place for the sake of peace. Mulili adamantly denies the couple the chance to carry out this ceremony. This is because he has been promised land and grade cattle. Not even the pleas from the old couple can make him change his mind to allow the shaving ceremony to take place.
- Power also corrupts when it is misused. During the Entertainment Committee meeting, Kabito and Mulili disagrees. Mulili suggest that the primary school children should line up to wait for the visiting Head of State to entertain him. Kabito opposes this vehemently and this leads to a heated exchange of words, Kabito asks Mulili whether he has ever stepped into a secondary school. Mulili says that Kabito has called him a Primary kid. During the one hour break, Mulili goes to Boss and influences him, he says that Kabito says that Boss hides millions in foreign accounts and that he wanted to rape Regina. This influences Boss, later on Kabito dies through road accident obviously planned by Boss.
- Boss also uses his power to award Mulili a tender for supplying milk at the university. During the entertainment committee meeting, Mulili says he will investigate who had robbed him off his tender. We learn that when the tender is taken from him by Kabito, Mulili goes to complain to Boss. Surprisingly, it takes Boss just a call, he calls the University Catering Department and the tender is awarded to Mulili.
- Tumbo is the chairman of the entertainment committee. A play needs to be scripted to entertain the visiting head of state. When he goes to see Regina at her house he finds Jusper and he learns from Regina that he is a good playwright. Jusper gets the job immediately without carrying out a short listing activity to get the best playwright. Jusper is given the task to write out the play. The money allocated is to be divided among Regina, Tumbo and Jusper.
- The state also uses its power to punish the innocent citizens. When Mosese speaks his mind during Adika’s funeral, he is opposed to the fact that the funeral ceremony should not take more than ten mintues, the students should not carry the coffin, weeping in public was illegal. The state organizes by having Nicodemo to plant a kilogram of Opium in Mosese’s car and Mosese is arrested for this.
- The state also uses its power to order that the visiting Head of State should be entertained by the prisoners. Nicodemo is not comfortable since he is the one who planted Opium in Mosese’s car, leading to Mosese’s arrest.
Out of this negligence the play that the prisoners have to act, gives Mosese, Jere and Jusper an opportunity
to use real guns since the props are missing. This leads to the death of Mulili who is shot by Jusper.
The entertainment committee which has been given the power to oversee the entertainment plans for the visiting
Head of State. When they meet it seems their first item on the agenda is the ‘size of the potato’ Nicodemo asks,
“What is the size of the potato?” They even suggest that they should be paid hourly instead of daily. During the
one hour break, after they receive the news of the death of Kabito, hey wonder whether they will be paid for that
From the above illustrations, it is clear that absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Introduction: 2 marks
Body – markt any 4 well illustrated points – 4 x 3 – 12 marks
Conclusion – 2mks
Grammar and presentation – 4mks
Total = 20mks
9. “The outside of one cell may as well be the inside of another.”
Discuss the relevance of the above statement basing your answer from Francis Imbuga’s, Betrayal in the City.
Candidate should have a relevant introduction.
No freedom of university students and lecturers. Jusper and the other university studentsnot allowed to meet – congregate anywhere.
Tumbo, Kabito and Nicodemo cannot express their views in the presence of Mulili for fear of being reported to Bss. They are just like prisoners.
Orders have to be followed even if one does not agree with them just like in prison e.g. Askari, Tumbo, Jusper, Doga and Nina.
Jusper is not supposed to express his grief for his brother.
Jere ends up in prison from allowing Doga and Nina to perform the shaving ceremony even through he said they could do it under supervision.
A relevant conclusion should be provided.
Expect four points 2 : 3 : 3 : 3 : 3: 2
Introduction – max. 2 marks
Body / Answer – 4 points x 3 = 12 marks
Conclusion – Max. 2 marks
10. “When the madness of an entire nation disturbs a solitary mind, it is not enough to say the man is mad.” Demonstrate the truth of this statement basing your illustrations on the play; Betrayal in the City, by Francis Imbuga
) Madness of entire nation
- Injustices i.e. Kabito, a loyal government official gets killed when he quarrels with Mulili and he had been denied the milk tender.
- Killings i.e. Doga and Nuhu are murdered in their hut when they protest against the government ban on the shaving ceremony; Jusper kills his brother’s murderer i.e. Chagaga
- Poor leadership affects Mosese who in his reverie poses the perfect figure of a disturbed mind.
- Corruption i.e. boss and Mulili (Nepotism)Inefficiency e.g. Tumbo.
- The qeneral atmosphere of rebellion causes Jusper and the prisoners Jere and Mosese to secretly stage a palace coup which ensnares villains like Mulili.
Introduction – 2mks
Body – 3 x 4 – 12mks
Conclusion – 2 marks
Grammar = 4 marks
3 : 3 : 3 : 3
11. “Many African leaders are dictatorial to cover up for their inadequacies.”
Using The Betrayal in the City, justify the above statement using Boss as an example.
Leaders often become dictatorial as a way of hiding or camouflaging their weaknesses. They become oppressive and heartless. In Betrayal in the City, Boss is portrayed as a weak character, who is very insecure. He will do anything to remain in power even if it means using brutality.
Don’t award for definitions.
1. Boss uses inept lieutenants. He keeps Mulili, his cousin close to him and uses him to do his dirty assignments, especially to liquidate opponents and to spy on others for him. By the time he realises that he made a mistake trusting him too much, it’s too late. Mulili betrays him when the government is overthrown. Mulili says he is the Bosses eyes and ears.
2. He makes rash judgements. After Mulili makes false allegation against Kabito, he issues express orders that Kabito be eliminated immediately. He does not bother to investigate and prove the truth of those allegations.
3. He is insecure. Because of this, he is heavy-handed in dealing with perceived opponens. For example, a students demonstration is brutally broken up; a student is shot dead in process. An old couple is denied a chance to conduct a shaving ceremony for their late son. When they don’t heed the orders, boss uses Mulili to eliminate them.
4. He is afraid of the image he portrays to the public. At one point, Mulili funds him plucking gray hairs from his head. He is afraid that the people will lose confidence in him once they notice he is growing old.
5. He lacks moral probity. It is reported that Boss tries to force himself to Regina at the palace. Regina has to jump through the ten foot high window. He goes ahead to have his wife locked up when she complains about the incident.
6. He is also arrogant and intolerant. Talking to Jusper before the rehearsals, he demonstrates this telling him he is the one in charge of the Africanisation programme and no amount of agitation will change anything.
It is clear that Boss engages in bad governance and has no integrity to rule over others. His nepotistic tendencies and his feeling of insecurity make him a person who is not worthy to be a head of state.
Introduction 2 mks
Body well developed points at 3:3:3:3
Conclusion 2 mks (tie the conclusion mark to the content)
12 “Dictatorship by any government leads to social and political oppresion.” Write an essay to show the truth of the above statement with close reference to Imbuga’s “Betrayal in the City.”
The dictatorial political system of Kafira is an epitome of many African governments. This kind of government, which is very conservative, is characterized by oppresion to human rights, both social and political. This is clearly seen in the text, ‘Betrayal in the City’ where any individual who tries to speak his mind is either jailed unconstitutionally or is killed.
i) University students
The government suppresses human rights expression through shooting Adika, the student’s leader accusing him of inciting students. The students had gone to the roads to critisize the policy of having influx of expatriates/ external personnel in the universities. Jere tells Mulili that Adika “……….. was slaughtered like a goat and sacrificed for non existent peace and harmony.” pg 14
ii) The couple
Jusper’s parents, Doga and Nina, were both murdered in their own hut. This is because they had insisted to carry out a key traditional rite, the shaving ceremony, but Mulili could not allow. Jere tells them, “Old people, you waste your time. There is to be no ceremony.” He even adds that the ceremony has been cancelled in the interest of peace. Later, the two old people are found murdered in their house. (pg 20)
Mosese speaks out his mind during Adika’s funeral. The funeral had been turned to political rally. “The service was not supposed to take more than ten minutes. The coffin should not be carried by students. Weeping in public is illegal for the academic staff.” Pg 25. Moses should not understand this. He spoke his mind. Due to this, one kilogramme of opium was planted on him, leading to his arrest and being jailed.
Jere is imprisoned for expressing his discontentment with Mulili. When Jere shouts at Mulili at Adika’s graveside, Mulili forebonds that “…….You shall pays for it.” And sure to the word, Jere finds himself behind the bars. In the prison, Jere expresses his opinion about the social’ oppression in society. “………the outside of this cell maybe well in the inside of another.” (pg. 16). The Askari does not allow any freedom of expression to the inmates. He says “Now don’t ask any other foolish question.” (pg 18)
The prison cells are a form of oppression. When Musese asks many questions, they suppress his freedom of expression. “We calculated that two mature strokes would ease the tension” pg 19. This is corporal punishement which is unwarranted. The prisoners have to be morally broken. “Your breaking point would be just before the end of our present jail term.” Pg 19.
The Askari tells Mosese, “It does’nt pay to have a hot mouth………… silence is the best ship home……….” (pg 19). In jail you cannot stick to your principles in Kafira. Jusper has been suppressed into silence. Moses becomes withdrawn.
In a nut-shell, it is evident that Kafira government is bedeviled by social and political oppression. The citizens’ lives have been terminated. Others have their freedom of expression curtailed, others jailed and many other social injustices.
(Any other relevant conclusion is acceptable)
13 “A society’s image is dependent on its governance.”
Using illustrations from Francis Imbuga’s, Berayal in the city,” write an essay in support of this statement
The face of a nations administration a rises from the manner its leaders are conducting its businesses. If leadership is poor that would be the image however, if it is good then the image would be attractive.
Accept any other valid introduction. Definition should not be considered as an introduction
- Dictatorial governance by boss produces negative image. The subjects are fearful e.g. Tumbo
- Nepotism giving of tenders to Malili instead of Kabito
- Nepotism-relatives are given employment opportunities –Cadet in army ,commandant relative- Malili boss cousin
- Oppression and mistreatment
- Protesting university students are killed when they are protecting against injustices e.g. Adika ,Juspers parents were also killed
- Corruption expatriates brought into the country unfairly
- Many meeting so as to get more money (allowances)
- Money not given to best winner but given without advert so that they share the money
14 “In a dictatorial regime, both the ruler and the ruled suffer.” With close reference to the events in the play, justify this statement.
Betrayal in the city
Introduction – 2 marks
Must be linked to the text; must be relevant to the essay
- Citizens/ the ruled suffer
- There are killings e.g. Adika
- There are arrests e.g. Mosese
- People live in fear
- No freedom of expression
- Those in power mistreat those that they rule e.g. Doga and Nina are prevented from carrying out shaving ceremony- by Mulili government agents.
- There is corruption that leads to evil competition.
- The elite suffer as jobs go to foreigners
- Government agents also suffer e.g. Kabito is killed by Mulili over tender
- Mulili also is killed
- Jere is imprisoned for contradicting Mulili
- There is general mistrust among governments officials
There is betrayal
15 “Many countries in Africa are burdened with bad governance “. Justify this statement using illustrations from Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City.
There are a countries in Africa have suffering due to bad governance by leaders who are selfish, greedy or otherwise corrupt. This had led to a number of problems suffeed by these countries
Any other relevant introduction = 2 marks
- The way boss was his government unreasonable. The government does not depend on the rule of law but rather on decrees issued from the palace and passed down through cronies whose word he trust even without verification.
- Tumbo’s remarks at the end of the play points on accusing finger authority, where he confesses that he bwas trained, but given the wrong job. The likes of Mulili should not be in government because they don’t deserve the positions they are given.
- Boss relies on his junior officers like Mulili, Tumbo, Kabito and Nicodemo to render sustainable opinion and advice to the government. They only think about their daily allowances and wish to reap as much as they can.
- The government interferes with ordinary people’s lives and cannot even allow them to carry out their normal ceremonies like Doya and Nina who are not allowed to carry out a simple ceremony for their dead son. The governemt sends two soldiers, Jere and Mulili to bar them from doing so. They are even murdered as a result.
The government restricts freedom of bexpression eg rioting students of Kafira univer4sity are violently stopped by having their leader shot dead. During the burial of the student leader, many instructions are put in place. Eg the service must not take more than ten minutes, the coffin should be carried by students and weeping in public is illegal for the academic staff
Any other relevant point
Expect 4 wel;l developed points 12 marks
Expect a recap or summing of the new point
Grammar+ presentation – 4 marks
16 Impunity is the order of the day in most African states. Drawing illustrations from Francis Imb uga’s Betrayal in the city, write an essay in support of this statement
Those in position of power often than not commit unpardonable crimes yet they go unpunished. In the text Mulili, boss Nicodemo and Tumbo are some of the characters who get away with crimes unpunished.
Any other valid introduction
(i) Mulili takes advantage of his relationship with Boss to get away with many evils. He kills Doga and Nina for insisting on carrying on with the shaving ceremony. He lies to Boss about Kabito and has him eliminated. He has Jere put in prison because of arguing with him over allowing the couple to continue with the shaving ceremony.
(ii) After the demonstration at the university because of the influx of expatriates in Kafira Boss brings in three hundred more expatriates to teach them a lesson.Boss locks up Mercedes for complaining about Regina (pg 61)He orders for the killing of Adika (pg 67)
(iii) Tumbo embezzles state funds and gets away with it. He is given money to organize for the play writing competition but does not organize for it (pg 48)He advises Regina to go ahead for her brother’s release when he very well knows that Boss has a weakness for weakness. (pg 45)
He does not take time to read the play written by Jusper and this leads to the bloodless coup in which Boss’s government is overthrown.
(iv) Mosese drops his christian name because he shared a name with the person responsible for his imprisonment.
Nicodemo planted opium in Mosese’s vehicle and has him charged for drug trafficking. It is no wonder he is jittery when he hears that the prisoners were going to share a dias with them during the visit by the head of state.
(v) Chagaga murders Adika and gets aways with it. All he gets is a dismissal from his job after stating that he did it (pg 4) in self defense. He later tries to get rid of Adika’s body by burning it.
Doga and Nina cannot report this to the sub-chief because Chagaga was his brother.
Any other valid points
Accept any 4 well illustrated points
Mark 3 : 3 : 3 : 3 = 12
From the given illustrations, it is true that those in positions of power practice impunity and get away unpunished.
17. The kitchen cabinet is responsible for the woes in many African States. Support this statement with reference s from Betrayal in the City by Francis Imbuga. The kitchen cabinet is responsible for the woes in many African states. Supports the statement with references from Betrayal in the city by Francis Imbuga.
Body – Points to be included.
- Abuse of office by Mulili, Mr Tumbo to intimidate Jasper into taking part in play.
- Manipulating of judicial system: Mulili frames Jere, Nicodemo frames Mosese, Jusper too is framed.
Executions on behalf of Boss, Mulili silences Niwa and Doga Kabito too is silenced by Mulili on behalf of Boss
Adika is executed for being vocal.
Dehumanization: Mulili suggests that every movable human should line up for the visitor. The team also ensures
nobody cries during Adika’s burial.
Intimidation: Citizens are intimidated by boss’s cabinet, Expatriates are imported to make the university student
silent. Moses is taken to mission. Jusper also goes to prison.
Flouting of government policies: The tender procedures eg. Kabito bribes to get the tender, boss overrule him. Mr.
Tumbo declares Jusper a winner of a competition that has not taken place.
Encourages corruption: Kabito bribes to get the milk tender, Mulili appointed in the government despite his
illiteracy and foolishness/lack of insight. Awarding for carrying out boss’s order.
Conclusion -general conclusion to sum up essay.
Mark 3: 3: 3: 3: 3: 12 marks
Introduction 2 marks
Conclusion 2 marks
Long/Grammar 4 marks
18. With illustrations from Francis Imbuga’s play “Betrayal in the City” show how greed has messed the society.
It can be general or specific
Points of interpretation.
GI Greed can lead to lack of commitment and dedication of duty.
Members of the entertainment committee seem motivated by the “size of the potato”(money)and not duty or service to the nation –Kabito asks for the size of the potato before meeting and Nicodemo requests for more meetings so that they can get more pay.
GII Greed leads to misappropriation of funds.
Mr Tumbo who is in charge of entertainment opts to have Jusper write the play instead of holding a writing competition. He then pockets two thirds of the money and pays Jusper a third.
GIII Greed leads to extra –judicial killings.
Boss directs the killings/elimination of Kabito,
Which is silently carried out by Mulili. Also Doga NAD Nina are killed; likewise Adika is killed by Chagachaga a government official.
GIV Greed causes inhumanity and insecurity among members of society.
Mulili’s loyalty to Boss is due to greed, as a result many people suffer due to this-
Examples Kabito, Jere, Mosese etc.
Conclusion 2 mks
(A valid conclusion)
19. Referring to Francis Imbuga’s play “Betrayal in the city,” write an essay to validate the statement: “Corruption retards development.”
The play exposes several instances of corruption. This hinders the economic progress of the state. Some of these instances are discussed below.
- Boss uses state rsources to award his confidants. Mulili, his cousin is a soldier, but iis promised many acres of land and grade cattle upoun retirement. He is set to be a big farmer with state resources. (p. 13, 51). This form of corruption drags down the state economy
- Boss influences university tender for supply of milk. The tender initially awarded Kabito is cancelled and awared Mulili since he’s a counsin to Boss. (p 51, 54- 55) besides boss ensures that he is put in the entertainment committee, though he knows nothing (p 51- 52). This kind of corruption leaves the state economy in the hands of a few people (relative to boss) while the rest of the citizens remain poor.
- The government officers charged with various responsibilotioes are more interested in “the potato” they get, rather than the services they render. Kabito, Nicodemo, Tombo and mulili show this in their state visit entertainment committee. They ask for what they would be paid per day before any serious issue is discussed. (p 53) they want more working days (p 53). This system of less work and more pay results in low production thus retardation of development.
- Tumbo, the chairman of state visit entertainment committee declares Jusper the winner of the play wtiting competition but the actual competition is never held. (p 48- 49) he promises Jusper and Regina one third of the money allocated for the competition while the other two thirds would be used to put the records straight. (p 49). This action denies other bpossible contestants the opportunity to participate the benefit leaving chances to a few individuals
- The government employs expatriates. Boss brings three hundred more expatriate personnel when the university students protets (p68). Most of the available opportunities are therefore taken up by foreigners. The influx of expatriate personnel has resulted in umeployment of the citizens. The state produces professionals but they cannot get employment.
Accept any other relevant point
Corruption as depicted in the play has resulted in efficiency, unemployment and low production, thus a major retardation to development. It is therefore a vice that should be avoided in leadership.
Introduction 2 mks
Content – any 4 well illustrated points
Conclusion 2 mks
20. “Mulili is the epitome of evil in the Kafiran society. “How true is this statement in light of what takes places in the play Betrayal in the city, by Francis Imbuga.
In the society there are people who may play sycophancy to those in power simply because they want to get famous and material gains from leaders. In the process they become evil minded, corrupt and the greedy. Mulili in betrayal in the city is a symbolic representation of evil in any given society.
- Because of his evil mindedness and agreed for material gain, Mulili discharges his duties unprofessionally, as long as this will please Boss so that he may favour and earn himself a foreseen. He murdered the old couple Duga and Nina in order to please Boss and get the farm and grade cattle hhe had been promised upon retirement.
- He becomes cruel and inhuman when he sees to it that jere is imprisoned for wanting to allow Doga and Nina conduct a burial ceremony for their son Adika who was murdered in cold blood.
- He frames other people falsely and arranges for their competition. A case in point is Kabito whom he frames before boss that he had abused him and said some others unpalatable things.
- His sycophancy is the best example of the illiterate and in efficient people in society who use their close association with those in power to feed their greed for material wealth and personal gain. His English is broken showing his level of education
At the end of the play mulili even betrays boss his own cousin and even claims that he is just but a distant relative. He spills out all the atrocities that boss had committed and even signs his death warratnt before the coup exec utors. His killing and eventual elimination by Jasper is a symbolic representation of evil being eliminated from soc iety.
Those who live by the sword and who try to perpetuate evil against others will finally come to utter ruin by the same means
21. “Like caged animals we move but inside the cage.” Write an essay to illustrate this statement based on Francis Imbuga’s Betrayal in the City.
Francis Imbuga: Betrayal in the City.
i) There is no freedom of expression for the University students and lecturers.
ii) The government officials Tumbo, Kabito and Nicodemo cannot express their views in the presence of Mulili for fear of being reported to Boss.
iii) Jere ends up in prison for trying to allow Doga and Nina to perform the shaving ceremony even though he said they could do it under his supervision.
iv) Orders have to be followed to the letter even if one does not agree with them e.g Askari, Tumbo Jusper, Doga and Nina.
v) Jusper is not allowed to express his grief for his brother and is arrested for it.
22. “Poor leadership can have far reaching consequences on society.” With reference to the play
Betrayal in the city, write a composition to show the truth of this statement. (20 marks)
(b)Drama – Betrayal in the City
– Political assassinations.
– Doga and Nina
– Kabito (killed in unclear circumstances)
– Mulili wins tenders, owns a big farm etc just because he is a cousin to Boss.
– Askari says one needs a ‘tall relative’ to get anything these days.
– Tumbo announcing Jusper the winner in a competition that was never held.
– Nicodemus and Kabito are beneficiaries of fraudulent wealth.
– Mosese’s imprisonment on flimsy grounds.
– Jere is sent to jail for acting contrary to the wishes of the powers that be.
– Destruction of the country’s economy.
– Hiring of expatriates.
– Grabbing of land and other resources e.g Mulili is promised land by Boss.
– Untold sufferings.
– Jusper mentally ill as a result of his brother’s killing by the government.
– Regina’s trauma as Boss tried to rape her.
– Nina and Doga’s mental anguish as a result of their son’s death (Adika) and harassment by government soldiers.
23. “A wounded lion is quite dangerous.” Write a composition in support of this statement drawing your examples from Francis Imbuga’s “Betrayal in the city”.
Francis Imbuga, Betrayal in the City
24. “Although there may be freedom of expression, it can have dire consequences on the life of an individual.”Discuss the validity of this statement, drawing your illustrations from the play Betrayal in the City.
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