Form 5 General Studies (GS) Study Notes General Studies (GS) Study Notes Msomi Maktaba All Notes


Definition of the terms science and technology

Science is an organized body of knowledge derived from a systematic observation and experiment of natural condition. Science involves the extract of knowledge and skills on something through testing, smelling, touching and experiments for the sake of deriving principles and laws guiding the discoveries.

It is an organized body of knowledge based on technical, know how and why from the experiments and observation.

Technology Is the application of the body of knowledge and skills obtained or it is the application of science and the scientific methods and principles. Technology being the product of science, it gives out materials as its product. Peoples technology can be described by the tools and machines. ES Electric machines, computer ect.


–   It is science that technology is based (technology); is the product of scientific principles.


–   Technology modifies and advances science e.g. new simplified innovations.

–  Science is made science when technology is approved.

–  Science uses technology to be make science i.e. use of technological materials in experiments.
–  Technology leads to discovery of new methods that challenge scientists for new theories.
–  Science knowledge is applied to improve and even predict technologies. Eg. Flow of information


Science and Technology is said to have been around from the beginning of man’s life.

It is identified in the efforts made by man to master his environment and life as in three stages of age as:-

(i)  Stone Age: The old, middle and new Stone Age when man’s science and technology is identified in the discovery and use of stone tools (Old Stone Age). The bone and wood tools together with the discovery of fire (middle Stone Age) and the simplified or lighter stone tools in the new Stone Age.

(ii)  The Bronze Age: The stage when man’s science and technology is noted in the discovery and use of tools from the alloy of tin and copper (Bronze) the tools were simpler than those from stones and wood.

(iii) The Iron Age: The stage when man’s science and technology is noted in the discover and use of iron tools, this stage developed in about 3000years ago BC and it is seen to develop in different societies of the world as in Ethiopia, Engaruka, Uvinza, Karagwe and Ugweno in Tanzania and Sudan.

NB: The discovery of iron awakened the other game form of discoveries and innovations so brought the new face of development of science and technology in the world.

The following are the major developments is science and technology:
1. Space research technology: It is the type of investigation which involves the exploration of the space in order to obtain some information which is useful to the life of man.
2. Information technology such as the Internets, Email, Fax and comprised electronic system of communication such as television have recently developed and have helped people to transfer information very fast from one place to another within short time.
3. Solar energy technology: It is the use of energy from the sun to provide neat and generate electricity. Solar electric devices convert solar energy into electricity and man be used in radios, Televisions, water pumps. ect.

Other recent development in science and technology include the following;
(i)   Biogas technology
(ii)  Geothermal energy
(iii) Tidal energy and HEP
(iv) Information technology (IT)
(v) Wind energy
(vi) Information technology (IT)

The concept of development

Development is the improvement of quality of life and the majority citizen in a given nation and is shown by positive changes in people living standards.
The term development can be defined as the level or capacity at which the society is able to master and control the environment. It involves the improved standards of living from the low standards of inability to control environment and poor conditions of the living standards of life.

Underdevelopment: The term underdevelopment does not real mean the absence of development because each society develops in a certain pace. It is rather a comparative term. It refers to the fact that societies, the human social development has been uneven.

Indicators of development.
Indicator are measurement which show the level/degree of development a certain Society has attained. They include the following
(i) High per capital income (The average value expressed in monetary value of goods of services produced in a given country in a given time normally one year
(ii) Low mortality rate
(iii) Low rate of population growth.
(iv) Low level of labour employed in agriculture
(v) High level of employment
(vi) High level of science and technology
(vii) Maximum utilization of natural recourse.

Broadly spelling the above the above mentioned indicators can be grouped into three major indicators which are 
(i) Economic growth indicators Eg Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 
(ii)Social growth indicators Eg. Mortality rate and population growth
(iii) Degree of industrialization Eg. Level of science and technology, labour force employed in agriculture.

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